Survey Paper On CyberPhysical System In Industry 4.0
Patel Dhruv, Patel Yash, Henita R. Rana
Computer Science & Engineering Dept., R. N. G. Patel Institute of Technology, Bardoli, India
Cyber physical systems (CPSs) is internet based communication and collaboration among value-chain participants, e.g., devices, systems, organizations, and humans. Connecting information and physical machinery, this new paradigm relies on how effective and fast connectivity is achieved for Industry 4.0.The paper represents how cyber physical system work in industry 4.0. The paper includes the 5c and 8c architecture and comparison between 5c and 8c. The application of CPS in different areas of industry and its description is also covered in this paper.
Keywords— Cyber physical systems, CPS, Industry 4.0, competitiveness, business models, smart factory, 8c model
The early 1970's when the first microprocessors started to emerge, it was not until 2006 when Helen Gill coined CPS at the NSF in the United States and the actual term cyber physical system was used to describe systems that connected the physical world with the digital .A cyber physical (also styled cyberphysical) system (CPS) is a mechanism that is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with the Internet and its users. Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are smart systems of collaborating computational entities with the surrounding physical world and CPS is about interaction with the physical system .CPS to change every concept in fields such as autonomous cars, robotic surgery, intelligent buildings, smart electric grid, smart manufacturing, and implanted medical devices.CPS represent the new generation of digital system. The CPS aims to increase the implementation of large scale industry by providing autonomy, adaptability, efficiency, functionality. Industry 4.0 is a name given to the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of things, cloud computing and cognitive computing. Industry 4.0 is commonly referred to as the fourth industrial revolution .
Industry 4.0 fosters what has been called a "smart factory". Within modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real-time both internally and across organizational services offered and used by participants of the value chain . The development of Internet of Things, Big Data concepts increased the productivity of various businesses and influenced the appearance of new business model . With CPS the factories are getting smart. Industry is on the threshold of the fourth industrial revolution.
The following table shows the comparison between 8c and 5c architectures.
The architecture of 8c shows the different levels of communication channel. It has 5 levels which are described below:
Level 0: It defines the actual physical processes.
Level 1: it defines the activities involved in sensing and manipulating the physical processes.
Level 2: defines the activities of monitoring and controlling the processes.
Level 3: it defines the activities of the workflow to produce the desired end-products.
Level 4: defines the business-related activities needed to manage a manufacturing organization.
This facet focuses on the value chain integration and production chain integration between two parties. If there is any adjustment in the production process it can reconstruct the supply chain and production chain dynamic and time.
This fact mainly focuses on the role in the design process, production process, and after-sales service of the product of customer. Future smart factories can accept huge orders with huge quantities from a variety of customers and fulfill the orders in timely. The customers, either agency/wholesaler or individual buyer, can participate in designing the product, keep track of the product, and even modify the product specifications during the production process.
This can be achieved by the concept of product centric manufacturing. The factory can spontaneously respond to the product order by automatically preparing materials, flexibly scheduling production processes, dynamic reconfiguring production lines, and automatically arranging storage and delivery for the product. In this way, the mass customization and the mass production can be realized. Customers can even notify the progress by receiving email or text messages. The considerations in the customer-facet can respond to the shift from the conventional "mass-production" paradigm to the newly emerging "mass customization" paradigm. The former paradigm is for producing a huge number of products of the same specification, Furthermore, after the product is delivered, the customers can continue obtaining after-sales services about operating, using, maintaining, and even recycling of the product for better quality of experience.
This facet focuses on extracting, storing, and inquiring the product traceability record. All production data, such as raw material suppliers/sources, production processes, production environment phenomena (e.g. temperature, humidity, vibration), production parameters, warehouses, and product shipment, is extracted and saved.
The considerations in the content facet can help achieve the product's whole lifecycle service. Certainly, by analyzing all the stored data and not only the manufacturing process but the production design, and the customer service can be improved.
In summary, the 5C architecture has five levels, while the 8C architecture has three extra facets. With the three extra facets, the 8C architecture focuses on both vertical and horizontal integration. It is good for both mass production and mass customization and emphasizes the product"s whole lifecycle service .
CPS has achieved varying applications in different sectors, and they include highly reliable medical devices and systems, traffic control and safety systems, advanced automotive systems, and systems for process control, environmental control, energy conservation, instrumentation, critical infrastructure control, distributed robotics, smart structures, manufacturing, and defense. In addition, the concept and technologies of IoT can be extended into many fields and various application, such as manufacturing systems, logistics, intelligent transportation, and supply chain management, etc. Moreover, in a constructed sensing environment, real-time data of things, such as manufacturing resources, can be sensed and captured by the registered sensors. Based on a carefully chosen communication protocol, these accurate, timely, consistent, and value-added data can be transmitted to cloud and further shared among manufacturing managers and suppliers. Real-time monitoring, tracking, and tracing of manufacturing resources and devices through the entire manufacturing chain can be achieved. There are several applications of CPS in industry which are included in following table with short description.
There is also some common area of CPS as follow:-
3. Energy Management
4. Environmental Monitoring
5. Intelligent Transportation
6. Medical device and System
7. Smart City
8. Smart home
10. Smart Manufacturing
Challenges in implementation of Industry 4.0 are as follow:
1. IT security issues, which is serious by the inherent need to open up those previously closed production shops.
2. Reliability and stability needed for critical machine-to-machine communication (M2M), including very short and stable time.
3. Need to maintain the integrity of the process.
4. Need to avoid any IT snags, as those would cause expensive production outages.
5. Need to protect industrial know-how contained also in the control files for the industrial automation gear
6. Lack of adequate skill-sets to expedite the march towards the fourth industrial revolution.
7. General reluctance to change by stakeholders.
8. Loss of many jobs due to the automatic processes and IT-controlled processes, especially for lower educated people of society.
9. Low management commitment.
10. Unclear legal data security and issues.
11. Unclear economic benefit/ Excessive investment.
12. Lack of regulation, standard and forms of certifications
13. Insufficient qualification of employees
- Alfredo Alan Flores Saldivar1, Yun Li1, Wei-neng Chen2, Zhi-hui Zhan2, Jun Zhang2, Leo Yi Chen3 "Industry 4.0 with Cyber-Physical Integration: A Design and Manufacture Perspective"
- L. Monostori (1)a,b*, B. KÃ¡dÃ¡r (2)a, T. Bauernhansl, (2)c,d, S. Kondoh (2)d,e, S. Kumara (1)h, G. Reinhart (1)g, O. Sauer (3)h, G. Schuh (1)i,j, W. Sihn (1)k, K. Ueda† (1)l "Cyber-physical systems in manufacturing"
- Lee, J. A Cyber-Physical Systems architecture for Industry 4.0-based manufacturing systems [Text] / J. Lee, B. Bagheri, H.-A. Kao // Manufacturing Letters. - 2015. - Vol. 3. - P. 18-23
- Armando W. Colombo, Stamatis Karnouskos, Okyay Kaynak, Yang Shi, Shen Yin "Industrial Cyberphysical Systems: A Backbone of the Fourth Industrial Revolution"
- Jehn-Ruey Jiang "An improved cyber-physical systems architecture for Industry 4.0 smart factories" Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2018, Vol. 10(6) 1-15
- Kuang ZJ, Hu L and Zhang C. A smart home architectural design of cyber physical systems. Appl Mech Mater 2014; 484-485: 785-789.
- Navickas V, Kuznetsova S.A, Gruzauskas V, CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS EXPRESSION IN INDUSTRY 4.0 CONTEXTJEL Classification: L21, M21.
- Lee E. Cyber-physical systems-are computing foundations adequate? In: Proceedings of the NSF workshop on cyber-physical systems: research motivation, techniques and roadmap, Austin, TX, 16-17 October 2006.
- Zhang Y, Qiu M, Tsai C-W, et al. Health-CPS: healthcare cyber-physical system assisted by cloud and big data. IEEE Syst J 2017; 11: 88-95.
- Kuang ZJ, Hu L and Zhang C. A smart home architectural design of cyber-physical systems. Appl Mech Mater 2014; 484-485: 785-789.